ANALYSIS OF ABC COUNTRIES

  Albania Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Cyprus Greece Macedonia Romania Serbia and Montenegro Turkey
Capital Tirana Sarajevo Sofia

1 187 000

Nikosia Athens Skopje Bucharest Belgrade Ankara
Area total: 28,748 sq km
water: 1,350 sq km
land: 27,398 sq km
total: 51,129 sq km
water: 0 sq km
land: 51,129 sq km
total: 110,910 sq km
water: 360 sq km
land: 110,550 sq km
total: 9,250 sq km (of which 3,355 sq km are in the Turkish Cypriot area)
water: 10 sq km
land: 9,240 sq km
total: 131,940 sq km
water: 1,140 sq km
land: 130,800 sq km
total: 25,333 sq km
water: 477 sq km
land: 24,856 sq km
total: 237,500 sq km
land: 230,340 sq km
water: 7,160 sq km
total: 102,350 sq km
water: 214 sq km
land: 102,136 sq km
total: 780,580 sq km
water: 9,820 sq km
land: 770,760 sq km
Land Boundaries total: 720 km
border countries: Greece 282 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 151 km, Serbia and Montenegro 287 km
total: 1,459 km
border countries: Croatia 932 km, Serbia and Montenegro 527 km
total: 1,808 km
border countries: Greece 494 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 148 km, Romania 608 km, Serbia and Montenegro 318 km, Turkey 240 km
0 km total: 1,228 km
border countries: Albania 282 km, Bulgaria 494 km, Turkey 206 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 246 km
total: 766 km
border countries: Albania 151 km, Bulgaria 148 km, Greece 246 km, Serbia and Montenegro 221 km
total: 2,508 km
border countries: Bulgaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km, Moldova 450 km, Serbia and Montenegro 476 km, Ukraine (north) 362 km, Ukraine (east) 169 km
total: 2,246 km
border countries: Albania 287 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina 527 km, Bulgaria 318 km, Croatia (north) 241 km, Croatia (south) 25 km, Hungary 151 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 221 km, Romania 476 km
total: 2,648 km
border countries: Armenia 268 km, Azerbaijan 9 km, Bulgaria 240 km, Georgia 252 km, Greece 206 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 352 km, Syria 822 km
  Albania Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Cyprus Greece Macedonia Romania Serbia and Montenegro Turkey
                   
Coast line 362 km 20 km 345 km 648 km 13,676 km 0 km (landlocked) 225 km 199 km 7,200 km
Land use arable land: 21.09%
permanent crops: 4.45%
other: 74.46% (1998 est.)
arable land: 9.8%
permanent crops: 2.94%
other: 87.26% (1998 est.)
arable land: 39%
permanent crops: 1.8%
other: 59.2% (1998 est.)
arable land: 10.61%
permanent crops: 4.65%
other: 84.74% (1998 est.)
arable land: 22.12%
permanent crops: 8.47%
other: 69.41% (1998 est.)
arable land: 23.59%
permanent crops: 1.85%
other: 74.56% (1998 est.)
arable land: 40.57%
permanent crops: 2.4%
other: 57.03% (1998 est.)
arable land: 36.34%
permanent crops: 3.44%
other: 60.22% (1998 est.)
arable land: 34.53%
permanent crops: 3.36%
other: 62.11% (1998 est.)
Administrative divisions 12 counties two first-order administrative divisions and one internationally supervised district 8 regions and city Sofia 6 districts; 51 prefectures and 1 autonomous region 123 municipalities 41 counties 2 republics; and 2 nominally autonomous provinces 81 provinces
Population 3,582,205 (July 2003 est.) 3,989,018 (July 2003 est.) 7,537,929 (July 2003 est.) 771,657 (July 2003 est.) 10,665,989 (July 2003 est.) 2,063,122 22,271,839 (July 2003 est.) 10,655,774 68,109,469 (July 2003 est.)
Ethnic groups Albanian 95%, Greek 3%, other 2% (Vlach, Gypsy, Serb, and Bulgarian) (1989 est.)
Serb 37.1%, Bosniak 48%, Croat 14.3%, other 0.6% (2000)
note: Bosniak has replaced Muslim as an ethnic term in part to avoid confusion with the religious term Muslim - an adherent of Islam
Bulgarian 83.6%, Turk 9.5%, Roma 4.6%, other 2.3% (including Macedonian, Armenian, Tatar, Circassian) (1998)

 

 

 

 

Greek 85.2%, Turkish 11.6%, other 3.2% (2000) Greek 98%, other 2%
note: the Greek
Macedonian 64.2%, Albanian 25.2%, Turkish 3.8%, Roma 2.7%, Serb 1.8%, other 2.3% (1994) Romanian 89.5%, Hungarian 6.6%, Roma 2.5%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.3%, Russian 0.2%, Turkish 0.2%, other 0.4% (2002) Serb 62.6%, Albanian 16.5%, Montenegrin 5%, Hungarian 3.3%, other 12.6% (1991) Turkish 80%, Kurdish 20% (estimated)
  Albania Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Cyprus Greece Macedonia Romania Serbia and Montenegro Turkey
Population growth rate 1.03% (2003 est.) 0.48% (2003 est.) -1.09% (2003 est.) 0.56% (2003 est.) 0.19% (2003 est.) 0.4% (2003 est.) -0.21% (2003 est.) 0.07% (2003 est.) 1.16% (2003 est.)
Religions Muslim 70%, Albanian Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10% Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, Protestant 4%, other 10% Bulgarian Orthodox 84%, Muslim 12%, Roman Catholic 1.7%, Jewish 0.1%, Protestant, Gregorian-Armenian, and other 2.3% Greek Orthodox 78%, Muslim 18%, Maronite, Armenian Apostolic, and other 4% Greek Orthodox 98%, Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7% Macedonian Orthodox 67%, Muslim 30%, other 3% Eastern Orthodox (including all sub-denominations) 87%, Protestant 6.8%, Catholic 5.6%, other (mostly Muslim) 0.4%, unaffiliated 0.2% (2002) Orthodox 65%, Muslim 19%, Roman Catholic 4%, Protestant 1%, other 11% Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews)
Net migration rate -1.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.) 0.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.) -4.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.) 0.43 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.) 1.96 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.) -1.46 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.) -0.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.) -1.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.) 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Government type emerging democracy emerging federal democratic republic Parliamentary democracy republic parliamentary republic parliamentary democracy republic republic republican parliamentary democracy
Constitution a constitution was adopted by popular referendum on 28 November 1998 the Dayton Agreement, signed 14 December 1995, included a new constitution now in force; note - each of the entities also has its own constitution adopted 12 July 1991 16 August 1960 11 June 1975; amended March 1986 and April 2001 adopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991 8 December 1991 4 February 2003 7 November 1982
Chief of state President of the Republic Alfred MOISIU Chairman of the Presidency Dragan COVIC President Georgi PARVANOV President Tassos PAPADOPOULOS President Konstandinos (Kostis) STEPHANOPOULOS President Boris TRAJKOVSKI President Ion ILIESCU President Svetozar MAROVIC President Ahmet Necdet SEZER
  Albania Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Cyprus Greece Macedonia Romania Serbia and Montenegro Turkey
                   
GDP

purchasing power parity

$15.69 billion (2002 est.) $7.3 billion (2002 est.) $49.23 billion (2002 est.) Greek area: $9.4 billion Turkish area: - $787 million (2002 est.) $203.3 billion (2002 est.) $10.57 billion (2002 est.) $169.3 billion (2002 est.) $23.15 billion (2002 est.) $489.7 billion (2002 est.)
GDP growth rate 7.3% (2002 est.) 2.3% (2002 est.) 4.8% (2002 est.) Greek Cypriot area: 1.7% (2001 est.); Turkish Cypriot area: 2.6% (2002 est.) 4% (2002 est.) 0.7% (2002 est.) 4.9% (2002 est.) 4% (2002 est.) 7.8% (2002 est.)
GDP per capita

purchasing power parity

$4,400 (2002 est.) $1,900 (2002 est.) $6,500 (2002 est.) Greek Cypriot area: $15,000 (2001 est.); Turkish Cypriot area: $6,000 (2002 est.) $19,100 (2002 est.) $5,100 (2002 est.) $7,600 (2002 est.) $2,200 (2002 est.) $7,300 (2002 est.)
GDP composition by sector agriculture: 49%
industry: 27%
services: 24% (2002 est.)
agriculture: 13%
industry: 40.9%
services: 46.1% (2001 est.)
agriculture: 14%
industry: 28%
services: 58% (2002)
Greek area: agriculture 4.6%; industry 19.9%; services 19.9%
Turkish area: agriculture 75.5%; industry 20.7%; services 71% (2001)
agriculture: 8.1%
industry: 22.3%
services: 69.3% (2002 est.)
agriculture: 11%
industry: 31%
services: 58% (2001 est.)
agriculture: 15%
industry: 35%
services: 50% (2001)
agriculture: 26%
industry: 36%
services: 38% (2001 est.)
agriculture: 12.9%
industry: 30.4%
services: 56.7% (2001)
  Albania Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Cyprus Greece Macedonia Romania Serbia and Montenegro Turkey
                   
Unemployment rate 17% officially; may be as high as 30% (2001 est.) 40% (2002 est.) 18% (2002 est.) Greek area: 3.3%; Turkish area: 5.6% (2002 est.) 10.3% (2002 est.) 37% (2002 est.) 8.3% (2002) 32% (2002 est.) 10.8% (plus underemployment of 6.1%) (2002 est.)
Inflation rate 6% (2002 est.) 3.5% (2002 est.) 5.9% (2002 est.) Greek Cypriot area: 2.8% (2001 est.); Turkish Cypriot area: 24.5% (2002 est.) 3.6% (2002 est.) 1.1% (2002 est.) 22.5% (2002 est.) 19% (2002 est.) 45.2% (2002 est.)
Budget                  
Revenues revenues: $697 million $1.9 billion $4.666 billion Greek Cypriot area - $4.4 billion, Turkish Cypriot area - $231.3 million (2002 est.) $45 billion $1.13 billion $11.7 billion $3.9 billion $42.4 billion
Expenditures expenditures: $1.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $368 million (2002 est.) $2.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.) $4.593 billion

(est.2002)

$3.7 billion, Greek area - $539 million, incl capital expenditures of $539 million, Turkish area $432.8 million, incl capital expenditures of NA (2003 est.) $47.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1998 est.) $1.02 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.) $12.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.) $4.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.) $69.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001)
  Albania Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Cyprus Greece Macedonia Romania Serbia and Montenegro Turkey
                   
Balance of payments -$803 million -$300 million +$73 million   -$2.6 billion +$110 million -$700 million -$400 million -$ 26.7 billion
Exports $340 million f.o.b. (2002 est.) $1.15 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.) $5.3 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.) Greek Cypriot area: $1.03 billion f.o.b. Turkish Cypriot area: $46 million f.o.b. (2002 est.) $12.6 billion f.o.b. (2002) $1.1 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.) $13.7 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.) $2.4 billion f.o.b. (2002) $35.1 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Export commodities textiles and footwear; asphalt, metals and metallic ores, crude oil; vegetables, fruits, tobacco metals, clothing, wood products clothing, footwear, iron and steel, machinery and equipment, fuels Greek Cypriot area: citrus, potatoes, pharmaceuticals, cement, clothing and cigarettes; Turkish Cypriot area: citrus, potatoes, textiles food and beverages, manufactured goods, petroleum products, chemicals, textiles food, beverages, tobacco; miscellaneous manufactures, iron and steel textiles and footwear, metals and metal products, machinery and equipment, minerals and fuels manufactured goods, food and live animals, raw materials apparel, foodstuffs, textiles, metal manufactures, transport equipment
Export partners Italy 76.6%, Germany 5.6%, Greece 2.7% (2002) Italy 31.6%, Croatia 18%, Germany 12.9%, Austria 10.1%, Slovenia 6.9%, Greece 4.3% (2002 Italy 15.5%, Germany 9.6%, Turkey 9.4%, Greece 9.2%, France 5.3%, US 4.8% (2002) UK 28.2%, Greece 7%, UAE 5.3%, France 5.2% (2002) Germany 10.4%, Italy 8.5%, UK 6.3%, Bulgaria 5.4%, US 5.3%, Cyprus 4.7% (2002) Germany 19.2%, Italy 9.2%, US 6.7%, Croatia 5.5%, Greece 4.6% (2002) Italy 24.4%, Germany 15.5%, France 7.7%, UK 5.4%, US 5%, Turkey 4.4% (2002) Italy 32%, Germany 19.5%, Greece 7%, Austria 6.1%, France 4.6% (2002) Germany 16.6%, US 9.2%, UK 8.5%, Italy 6.4%, France 6% (2002)
  Albania Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Cyprus Greece Macedonia Romania Serbia and Montenegro Turkey
                   
Imports $1.5 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.) $2.8 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.) $6.9 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.) Greek Cypriot area: $3.9 billion f.o.b.; Turkish Cypriot area: $301 million f.o.b. (2002 est.) $31.4 billion f.o.b. (2002) $1.9 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.) $16.7 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.) $6.3 billion f.o.b. (2002) $50.8 billion c.i.f. (2002 est.)
Import commodities machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, textiles, chemicals machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs fuels, minerals, and raw materials; machinery and equipment; metals and ores; chemicals and plastics; food, textiles Greek Cypriot area: consumer goods, petroleum and lubricants, intermediate goods, machinery, transport equipment; Turkish Cypriot area: food, minerals, chemicals, machinery machinery, transport equipment, fuels, chemicals machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels; food products machinery and equipment , fuels and minerals, chemicals, textile and products machinery and transport equipment, fuels and lubricants, manufactured goods, chemicals, food and live animals, raw materials machinery, chemicals, semi-finished goods, fuels, transport equipment
Import partners Italy 39.4%, Greece 24.5%, Turkey 6%, Germany 5% (2002) Croatia 23.7%, Slovenia 14.8%, Germany 14%, Italy 13.1%, Hungary 8%, Austria 7.7% (2002) Russia 14.6%, Germany 14.4%, Italy 11.4%, Greece 6.1%, France 5.7%, Turkey 5% (2002) Russia 17.9%, Greece 7.4%, Germany 6.7%, France 6.6%, UK 6.6%, Italy 6.6%, South Korea 5.7%, Japan 5.3% (2002) Germany 12.2%, Italy 11.5%, Russia 7.4%, South Korea 6%, France 5.7%, Netherlands 5.6%, US 4.7%, Belgium 4.3%, UK 4.1% (2002) Greece 19.4%, Germany 14.4%, Bulgaria 7.5%, Slovenia 6.9%, Italy 6.9%, Turkey 5.9%, Ukraine 5%, Austria 4.1% (2002) Italy 20.2%, Germany 18.1%, France 6.6%, Russia 5.6%, Austria 4.9%, Hungary 4.1% (2002) Germany 19.4%, Italy 18%, Austria 8.5%, Slovenia 5.6%, Greece 4.4%, France 4.3%, Bulgaria 4.2%, Romania 4.1% (2002) Germany 13.7%, Italy 8.1%, Russia 7.6%, US 6%, France 5.9%, UK 4.8%, Switzerland 4.1% (2002)
Trade balance -$1.16 billion -$1.65 billion -$1.6 billion   -$18.8 billion -$0.8 billion -$3 billion -$3.9 billion -$15.7 billion
Dept external $784 million (2000) $2.8 billion (2001) $9 615 billion Greek Cypriot area: $8 billion; Turkish Cypriot area: $NA (2002) $63.4 billion (2002 est.) $1.3 billion (2001 est.) $13.7 billion (2002 est.) $9.2 billion (2001 est.) $118.3 billion (Yearend 2001)
Currency code lek (ALL) marka (BAM) lev (BGN) Greek Cypriot area: Cypriot pound (CYP); Turkish Cypriot area: Turkish lira (TRL) euro (EUR) Macedonian denar (MKD) leu (ROL) new Yugoslav dinar (YUM); note - in Montenegro the euro is legal tender; in Kosovo both the euro and the Yugoslav dinar are legal (2002) Turkish lira (TRL)
Membership in international organizations CEI

BSEC

WTO

CEI CEFTA

CEI

BSEC

WTO

EU

WTO

EU

NATO

BSEC

WTO

CEI CEI

BSEC

CEFTA

WTO

CEI NATO

BSEC

WTO

Chamber membership in international organizations ABSZ

SECI

CCEI

SECI

CCEI

Eurochambres

CCI

ABSZ

SECI

CCEI

Eurochambers

FIATA

ICC

ASCAME

WTCA

WASME

Eurochambres

SECI

ABSZ

ICC

SECI

ICC

CCEI

FIATA

Eurochambers

ICC

ABSZ

SECI

CCEI

 

Eurochambers

SECI

ICC

SECCI

Eurochambers

ICC

SECI

ABSZ

Railways 447 km 1,021 km (795 km electrified) 4,294 km 0 km 2,571 km (764 km electrified) 699 km 11,385 km (3,888 km electrified) 4,059 km 8,607 km
Highways total: 18,000 km
paved: 5,400 km
unpaved: 12,600 km (2000)
total: 21,846 km
paved: 11,424 km
unpaved: 10,422 km (1999 est)
total: 37,286 km
paved: 35,049 km (including 324 km of expressways)
unpaved: 2,237 km (2000)
total: 13,491 km
note: Greek Cypriot area: 11,141 km; Turkish Cypriot area: 2,350 km
unpaved: Greek Cypriot area: 4,713 km; Turkish Cypriot area: 980 km (2000/1996)
paved: Greek area: 6,428 km; Turkish area: 1,370 km
total: 117,000 km
paved: 107,406 km (including 470 km of expressways)
unpaved: 9,594 km (1999 est.)
total: 8,684 km
paved: 5,540 km (including 133 km of expressways)
unpaved: 3,144 km (1999 est.)
total: 198,603 km
paved: 98,308 km (including 113 km of expressways)
unpaved: 100,295 km (2000)
total: 49,805 km
paved: 31,029 km (including 560 km of expressways)
unpaved: 18,776 km (2000)
total: 385,960 km
paved: 131,226 km (including 1,749 km of expressways)
unpaved: 254,734 km (1999)
Airports 12 (2002) 32 (2002) 216 (2002) 16 (2002) 79 (note - new Athens airport at Spata opened in March 2001) (2002) 18 (2002) 65 (2002) 45 (2002) 120 (2002)
Ports and harbors Durres, Sarande, Shengjin, Vlore Ploce, Brcko, Orasje, Bosanski Samac, Bosanska Gradiska Burgas, Lom, Nesebur, Ruse, Varna, Vidin Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Paphos, Vasilikos Alexandroupolis, Elefsis, Irakleion (Crete), Kavala, Kerkyra, Chalkis, Igoumenitsa, Lavrion, Patrai, Peiraiefs (Piraeus), Thessaloniki, Volos none Braila, Constanta, Galati, Mangalia, Sulina, Tulcea Bar, Belgrade, Kotor, Novi Sad, Pancevo, Tivat, Zelenika Gemlik, Hopa, Iskenderun, Istanbul, Izmir, Kocaeli (Izmit), Icel (Mersin), Samsun, Trabzon
Tourism (tourists) 353,000 (2001) 890.000 (2002) 3.186.000 (2002) 2.418.200 (2002) 9.221.100.000 (2000) 422.000 (2002) 4.793.722 (2002) 2.751.000 (2002) 18.307.598 (2002)
Revenue from tourism $4.46 million (2001) $17 million (2002) $1.201 billion (2002) $2.019 billion (2002) $2.02 billion (2002)        

Source: World Trade book 2003, www.cia.gov

Note:
EU European union
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
CEI Central European Initiative
CCEI Chamber of Central European Initiative
BSEC Black Sea Economic Cooperation
WTO World Trade Organization
SECI South Eastern European Initiative
SECCI South Eastern Europe Chamber of Commerce and Industry
ABSZ Association of Black Sea Zone
CEFTA Central European Free Trade Agreement
FIATA Federation of International Freight Forwarders Association
WASME World Association of Small and Medium Enterprises
ASCAME Assembly of the Mediterranean Chambers of Commerce and Industry

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